The personnel of CPO have considerable expertise in designing systems in charged particle optics.

Prof. Frank Read has acted as a consultant in instrumentation and charged particle optics for many companies, including:

  • Kratos Analytical Ltd, Manchester, UK

  • Ferranti Ltd, Manchester, UK

  • Shimadzu Research Laboratories (Europe) Ltd, Manchester

  • VG Scientific Ltd, East Grinstead, UK

  • Corning, Inc, New York, USA

  • Photek Ltd, St. Leonards-on-Sea, UK

  • Lucent Technologies Inc, Atlanta, USA

  • IMS, Vienna, Austria

  • Micromass UK Ltd, Manchester, UK

  • Photonis, Brive, France

He has also published Electrostatic lenses, by E Harting and F H Read, Elsevier Publishing Company, Amsterdam (1976) and over 60 refereed papers on instrumentation and charged particle optics. The book is:

Several of the papers have been cited more than 50 times -one of them more than 400 times! The papers include:

The invention of 'zoom' lenses:

  • Electron optical systems with fixed image positions for beams of variable energy, by J D Cross, F H Read and E A Riddle, J.Sci.Inst. 44, 993-6 (1967).

  • A three-aperture electron optical lens for producing an image of variable energy but fixed positions, by R E Imhof and F H Read, J.Phys.E (Sci.Instrum.) 1, 859-60 (1968).

The first application of the Boundary Element Method in electron optics:

  • Electrostatic cylinder lenses I: Two element lenses, by F H Read, A Adams and J R Soto-Montiel, J.Phys.E (Sci.Instrum.) 4, 625-32 (1971).

The first high-resolution electron spectrometer:

  • The realisation of high energy-resolution using the hemispherical electrostatic energy selector in electron impact spectrometry, by J N H Brunt F H Read and G C King, J.Phys.E (Sci.Instrum.) 10, 134-9 (1977).

The first application of the Boundary Element Method (which we then called the charge-density method) to space-charge systems:

  • The charge-density method of solving electrostatic problems with and without the inclusion of space-charge, by A Renau, F H Read and J N H Brunt, J.Phys.E (Sci.Instrum.) 15, 347-54 (1982).

The invention of the widely used 'paralleliser':

  • Magnetic field paralleliser for 2* electron spectrometer and electron image magnifier, by P Kruit and F H Read, J.Phys.E (Sci.Instrum.) 16, 313-24 (1983).

The invention and use of the 'backward scattering' technique:

  • The production and optical properties of an unscreened but localised magnetic field, by F H Read and J M Channing, Rev. Sci. Instr. 67, 2372-2377 (1996). Measurements of elastic electron scattering in the backward hemisphere, by M Zubek, N Gulley, G C King and F H Read, J. Phys. B, 29, L239-244 (1996).

The invention of the parallel cylindrical mirror analyzer:

  • The parallel cylindrical mirror electron energy analyzer, by F H Read, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73 1129-1139 (2002).

Studies of stochastic electron-electron coulomb interactions:

  • Accurate Monte-Carlo calculation of Boersch energy and angle spreading, by F.H. Read and N.J.Bowring, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74 2280-2287 (2003). Monte-Carlo Calculation Of Boersch Energy Spreading, by F.H. Read and N.J.Bowring, Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A519, 196-204 (2004).

  • The contributions of stochastic coulomb interactions and collective space-charge field aberrations to spatial spreading in charged particle projection systems, by F H Read and N J Bowring, Microelectronic Engineering 73-74, 97-105 (2004).

Prof. Frank Read has also published 1 book and over 140 papers in other areas and several of these papers have been cited more than 100 times.